I will highlight the working principle of loudspeakers. Loudspeakers are the core element of most audio video systems. Without loudspeakers, you would not be able to enjoy a movie or listen to your favorite tunes. There different types of loudspeakers on the market. Let me categorize loudspeakers.
The majority of loudspeakers are dynamic speakers. Sound is produced by a moving diaphragm. This diaphragm has a coil attached to it. This coil is also referred to as voice coil. When driving a loudspeaker, you connect a power amplifier to the speaker using speaker wire. This speaker wire conducts electricity to the loudspeaker. The electricity is then connected onto the voice coil. The voice coil itself is suspended in a magnetic field. When currents are excited in that voice coil, there’s a mechanical force. This mechanical force then pushes the diaphragm within the magnetic field.
The advantage of dynamic speakers is that they are easy to construct. However, this type of loudspeaker also has some drawbacks. One drawback is that it starts distorting at certain excitations of the diaphragm. At larger excitations, the movement of the diaphragm is no longer directly linear to the current. That is mostly caused by the limitation of movement of the diaphragm.
However, the magnetic field itself is also not uniform. Only within a certain volume is the field fairly uniform. Then the field starts to spread out. Usually, the larger the magnet the more uniform the magnetic field is. Unfortunately, large magnets are also pretty heavy.
Another type of speaker is the electrostatic speaker. The speaker uses a foil which is charged by electricity. Electrostatic speakers are not as common as dynamic speakers. Also, they are much more expensive. They are complicated to manufacture.
Aside from the transducer elements, loudspeakers can be classified by how the enclosure is constructed. One common type of loudspeaker enclosure is the Bass reflex box. This type of speaker has a hole in front and low-frequency components are reflected inside the enclosure. Usually, the larger the enclosure, the better than low-frequency response. There also other types of loudspeakers which use air channels in order to improve the low-frequency response.
The majority of speakers these days which also includes wireless speakers uses dynamic speaker elements. These are inexpensive to manufacture and usually can easily be integrated into an enclosure. Most speakers use multiple transducers. A loudspeaker which uses to transducers is called a two-way speaker. Similarly, his speaker using three transducers is called a three-way speaker.